How to Raise Project Managers' Engagement Levels for Improving Projects' Quality
Recent years have seen a need to create an environment in which employees can find their work fulfilling and actively tackle tasks.In addition,raising a score of employee engagement is proved to have a positive effect on the company's operating profit rate and labor productivity.Therefore,in organizations with a high percentage of project managers,management is interested in how to raise project managers' engagement levels to improve their project quality and productivity.This paper reports my experience and lesson with some concrete cases of applying an idea to my measures for project managers to find their work fulfilling and raise their engagement levels.The applied idea is that we can achieve great results by acting based on the belief of the "growth mindset" that "your basic qualities are things you can cultivate through your efforts"(Carol, 2016). The measures consist of the following three aspects for different targets to change their ways of thinking: (1) measures for project managers to voluntarily improve their project quality, (2) measures for the superiors of the project managers to plan quality-focused projects, and (3) measures for all members of my organization to learn from successes. By taking these three measures planned from the viewpoints of the targets in order to change their ways of thinking, I tried to make the organization's members at all levels (project managers in particular) raise awareness about project quality.
Research on Optimal Management Methods for Minimizing Damage Caused by Natural Disasters
It is reported that there is a high probability that an earthquake directly beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area or a huge Nankai Trough earthquake will occur in the near future. In addition, it is predicted that severe natural disasters such as heavy rain disasters due to climate change will continue to occur. The challenge is that there is no end to damage of various sizes. Although it is extremely difficult to prevent natural disasters, we believe that the minimization of damage can be improved compared to the current situation by adopting appropriate methods. This time, with the aim of clarifying effective management methods for minimizing damage, we will present our ideas from the current situation and issues of natural disasters and damage. Here, the optimal management method was derived by making a hypothesis. First, The idea was based on the hypothesis that the management is suitable for project management, which is a method characterized by limited time, uniqueness, and stepwise refinement. The conclusion was derived that the trinity management, which integrates program management and portfolio management, which are the upper management of project management, is the optimum management for minimizing the damage caused by natural disasters. Moreover, the issues were raised from human behavior and psychology , including behavioral economics.
Study of the Human Development Methods Using Project Management Framework
Yuriko Yamamoto，Narumi Yoshikawa，Akira Yamazaki
An environmental problem due to the climate changes such as Extreme weather and forest fire, the natural disaster is the problem that the correspondence on scale is essential. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were announced at the United Nations Sustainable Development Summit. Environment problem including the global warming is a problem to be common for the earth citizen. Upbringing of the international environmental human resources for this problem solution is demanded from the society. In addition, an approach to environment becomes important for corporate value evaluation standard including ESG investment in the company. The aim of this paper is to suggest the platform for upbringing of the environmental leader with the SDGs era through the Project Management. I examine the curriculum of the upbringing Stakeholder Management by the Asian university. The Asian Students Environment Platform (ASEP) gathers university students and faculty from countries throughout Asia to learn about the differences of each nation’s natural environment and values and engage in transnational discussion concerning the global environment for the purpose of cultivating talented individuals in the field of the environment who will flourish on the global stage. As a result of this research, it was clarified that the application of the Project Management is effective for the construction of educational programs in the environmental field, and that it is also suitable for the construction of environmental education programs.
Optimized Job Transfer Guide to Succeeding Project in Long-term IT System Maintenance
A long-term IT system maintenance contract tends to be divided into sequence of projects, whose assets are transferred to next project. To keep the momentum of the sequence of these projects, succeeding project should be planned carefully choosing the project control assets of former project. Detailed schedule for each work (WBS) of former project is one of the important assets to be reused by succeeding project with adequate adjustment to new project. The range/level of time this adjustment varies depending on the succeeding project system requirements and project organization. SME (Subject matter expert), who is independent of the project team, is commonly assigned to critical or/and big projects. SME assignment to these types of projects sequence might be a good idea to extract the essence of control assets of each project to form a template that can be reusable with minimum modification. Project management system availability is also important for keeping the continuous flow of projects because project baton-pass need to be completed within limited baton-pass zone. WBS should be exported in advance to readable format with commonly used spreadsheet software just in case project management system is unavailable due to human/system reason. Hashtag, commonly used nowadays in SNS, can also be applied to project management system for minimizing the preparation time/cost for these projects sequences by adding not only portability to assets but also interim availability to continue projects when the project control system is unavailable.
A Study of Factors Affecting Productivity of Team Work in a Telework Environment
Takako Shirai，Masaharu Shiotani，Ayu Nagane，Kenta Tozawa，Keiji Fujita，Takashi Masuda ，Kiyomi Miyoshi
Despite the government's promotion of telework in Japan since around 2017, the implementation rate of telework in Japan was only 9.8% in FY2019. However, with the start of the COVID-19 epidemic at the end of 2019, the adoption of telework in Japan rapidly gained momentum, with many companies adopting telework. In a survey conducted at the end of 2020, the rate doubled to 19.7%In previous studies, a lot of quantitative research was done on telework. According to them, the difficulty in communication is a problem in telework. In addition, The problem of communication seems to be particularly significant in team work.The purpose of this paper is to obtain knowledge on how to smoothly promote team work and improve productivity in a telework environment.Interviews were used to extract factors that contribute to high productivity and factors that inhibit productivity that cannot be extracted by conventional questionnaire surveys.We conducted a semi-structured interview with 17 Japanese workers working from home about changes in productivity in teamwork due to working from home. In the interview, we focused on changes in work, life, and consciousness (motivation) of the basic survey subjects before and after teleworking, and how to respond to those changes and ingenuity. We used a text mining method to quantitatively analyze the effects of telework on different work environments. In addition, a qualitative analysis was conducted using the system thinking method in a workshop.As a result of the analysis, characteristics were found according to the different work practices of the survey targets. It became clear that measures to improve productivity were necessary according to the characteristics.In addition, the following was found. The factors that influence productivity due to the transition to the telework environment were (1) individual work environment, (2) quality and quantity of communication, (3) individual motivation, and (4) individual proficiency.
Project Organization Structure Points for Successful "agile Development" Projects
Naoki Kuwata，Yoshihisa Yamamura，Hideki Watanabe，Susumu Nakamura
Regarding digital solution project, it is difficult to define the project's scope in advance because such type of project is required to create values by repeated trial and error. As a result, the development style tends to adopt "agile development" with short release cycles and the ability to flexibly respond to change. Scrum, which is one of the development methods in agile development, is defined by the Scrum guide on how to proceed and roles but does not consider the perspective of a mixture of client and contractor in the scrum team. If a project manager handles a project with incorrect understanding of agile development ordered by client, there is a risk to fail the project. In this paper, we show the management points for agile development projects ordered by client based on examples of agile development projects in which the author participated as a Scrum Master (SM). Then, we focus on the points of the project structure that should be considered at the initial start-up phase to drive phase in the life cycle of agile development and show the organizational project structure suitable for agile development, the roles of SM and Project Manager (PM). In addition, we discuss the scope of responsibility, including that of the product owner, becomes ambiguous in actual projects, the RACI model is used to examine the scope of responsibility.
Study of SW Development Management for Global SI Project Under Pandemic
Kenichiro Fujii，Yosuke Hirata，Eiji Muramatsu，Terutaka Uchida
This paper shows some studies to manage SW development and integration support for global SI projects under pandemics. NEC received a SI project (solution for pandemic) for popular island airports in the middle of 2020 and delivered the thermal/facial recognition system SW from Japan with several project management improvements. The system is used to find potentially infected persons who landed at the airport from overseas and the mainland. The system will capture elevated temperature at the exit of the landing gate, and if it exceeds the threshold, the system will inform facial images and track the direction of the movement inside the airport. This system has been deployed to multiple islands with hundreds of cameras.There were new challenges, travel and meeting restriction (unable to process on-site survey, even project members needed to work remotely) and we needed to develop SW rapidly with ongoing regulation/decision (pandemic situation varied day by day).NEC faced these challenges by building a full remote support program (such as kitting not only SW manual but also knowhow manual and training, staggered support, remote consultation, etc.), assigned leaders who had experienced global projects, and co-development program with the SI front team. Most of the counterparts worked properly and drove the project as a result. One of the factors to success was preserving communication with patience to not only for the SI front team but also for customers. These countermeasures could be used for a new normal era. But, even if a good tool is prepared or IT evolution is advanced, I believe communication is still a key to succeed in a SI project. Developing new communication or culture (realizing virtual lunch/dinner, etc.) may be important in near future.
System Verification Automation Framework Based on IaC for DevOps Teams
Shigeaki Matsumoto，Masashi Hayakawa
This study describes system verification framework based on IaC and software bill of materials. The framework helps DevOps teams to focus on valuable backlogs. The system consists of application layer and infrastructure layer. The DevOps teams continue to upgrade and operate the whole of the system. Our issue is how to separate valuable backlogs and required backlogs which are sometimes in the high priority. The valuable backlogs are mainly enhancement of the application. The enhancement generally supply improvement of end user experience. So, its exciting tasks and gives impact to the end users. On the other hand, the required backlogs are mainly security update or releasing in new infrastructure. The operation guarantee of the system is required once the system has been released. Its boring and add little impression on the end users. Our study try to resolve required backlogs automatically by describing base software bill of materials in the system. The key feature of our trial consists of Crawler, Generator and Recorder. The crawler watches software components release and notifies the update to the generator. Then, the generator update one of software component in configuration definition. Based on the configuration, IaC technology such as Ansible are triggered to generate new environment. In the new environment, CI/CD pipeline tests applications whether the function works correctly in the new environment. The evaluation result and the updated software is stored in Recoder. Therefore all the possible updates are tested automatically, required backlogs can be reduced by our study. Recently, major software component such as Java are updated every 6 months, so our study can be helpful especially for maintenance project.
Comparison of Project Management in Waterfall Model and Agile Methodology in the Software Development
Ryoichi Kimura，Kiyomi Miyoshi
Most of the IT projects in Japan to date have adopted the waterfall development process as the process model for software development.Therefore, project management has also been based on the waterfall development process.The project management based on the waterfall development process is led by a project manager who has a specialized and dedicated role to lead the project team to success.On the other hand, in the agile development process, there is no role of project manager, and the project team itself, as a "Self-management teams," promotes project management autonomously and actively.For example, in Scrum, an agile development process, the role of project manager is shared among the product owner, scrum master, and development members.So, how is project management executed in a project based on an agile development process?The purpose of this paper is to summarize the reality of project management in agile development processes, and to clarify the differences in project management between waterfall model and agile methodology in the software development.In this study, we interviewed IT engineers with experience in both waterfall model and agile methodology in the software development were selected as interviewees.We interviewed them using a semi-structured interview method.The interviews concentrate on, about the structure of agile development, successful and unsuccessful experiences, the difference between agile development and waterfall development project management, and the skills required for project management in agile development.The interview data was transcribed into text, which was then analyzed using a method called the KJ method.As a result of the analysis, the following characteristic capabilities were identified as necessary for project management in agile methodology in the software development: the ability to proactively challenge new technologies and processes, the ability to communicate proactively with stakeholders, and the ability to look at the big picture and notice omissions and leakages between functions.In addition, In the field of agile development, the role of project manager is performed by the product owner or scrum master.
Improved Throughput of Service Desk Operations Using TOC
The concept of Theory of Constraints (TOC) has contributed to improve the throughput of various fields, such as project management, manufacturing, and distribution industry. Likewise, there is no exception for the Information Technology (IT) field, as we find the TOC concept has been increasingly adopted for project management in IT system development year by year, and its effectiveness has been acknowledged. However, despite being in the same IT field, no examples can be found for introducing the concept of TOC into IT operations and its recognized relevant effect. In this paper, we present a case in which the concept of TOC was applied to one of the IT operations, the service desk operations, and the improvement effect could be quantitatively demonstrated. The report elaborates on "How to construct the evaluation indexes", "How to identify the constraints in the service desk operations", "How to apply the identified constraints to the service desk operations", and "The effect obtained by applying those identified constraints". Additionally, the Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM) concept is also used in "How to construct the evaluation indexes" and "How to apply the identified constraints". As a result, a significant quantified improvement in the throughput was observed in the established evaluation indexes by utilizing the constraints. Based on the results of this case study, we would suggest that the TOC concept be developed and applied to various IT operations, including service desk operations.
Communication Effectiveness and Organizational Commitment During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Trung Kien Nguyen，Tsutomu Konosu
Communication management is one of the most important knowledge areas and is considered the lifeblood of project management. Therefore, it is essential to realize the importance of communication, what it means by communication effectiveness and how to communicate effectively. In the present study, the relationship between effective communication and organizational commitment is taken into consideration. Effective communication enhances and reinforces employees' commitment to their organization. Effective communication creates motivation, helps to overcome barriers, improves communication quality, and facilitates harmony and understanding between employees and organization. The present study is conducted in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic hit the world as a global shock as it disrupts the way people work and how organizations function, leaving long-lasting effects on the global economy and on each individual. Most countries are put under heavy restrictions with their population facing isolation. Organizations have to implement new ways of working or organize different types of workflow. At the same time, COVID-19 places burdens on individuals in terms of mental and physical health concerns, and addition responsibilities such as caring for their children and elderly at home. The present study applies Muszynska (2018) model to evaluate the communication effectiveness of each individuals as well as their total average. Meyer and Allen (1993) model is used to assess organizational commitment. Communication effectiveness has a positive relationship with organizational commitment, therefore if communication effectiveness is reduced, it will have adverse impacts on organizational commitment. The present study also deliver some recommendations for managers to enhance communication effectiveness, and ultimately, organizational commitment, during the crisis.
Factors Affecting Adoption of Environmental Management System in Indian Firms
Tenzin Choedon，Trung Kien Nguyen，Tsutomu Konosu
Environmental conservation has received significant attention from both private and public organizations in recent years, leading to an increasing need for adopting environmental management tools. Stringent governmental regulations and alarming environmental problems, in addition to fierce competition, play a major part in pushing such organizations to focus on the Environmental Management System (EMS) practices. Previous researches have shown that EMS serves an important role in resolving environmental issues such as industrial pollution while supporting sustainability at the same time. In this context, the present study is conducted to address key motivating factors for the adoption of EMS in the case of Indian firms. The primary data is collected through an electronic questionnaire survey, categorizing into 5 sections: general influencers, internal pressures, business benefits, resource conservation and emission reduction. The secondary data is obtained from literature review. Responses are 100 proper answers of participants from Indian firms. The collected data is processed through exploratory factor analysis, resulting in the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin value greater than 0.7, and the Bartlett's Test p-value of 0.05. Accordingly, the data set is adequate, also factors are correlated and indicate presence of variables that can emerge as useful factors. Two underlying factors are obtained named "cost saving" and "environmental protection". The variable "brand differentiation" appears to have the highest correlation with "cost saving", followed by the "competitive advantage". The variable "pollution" shows high correlation with "environmental protection". The present study delivers crucial implications and recommendations for Indian firms. It is important to corporate business objectives and practices with eco-conservation strategies to overcome existing environmental problems.
Study on Labor Productivity and Its Impacts on the Construction Delay in India
Tenzin Choedup，Trung Kien Nguyen，Tsutomu Konosu
The success of a project inevitably involves a large number of project teams with their unique competences. Each project team is characterised by their own diversity, knowledge, culture, dynamics, disciples and features, while being interdependence with each other. The present study is conducted on the construction projects in India. Construction projects are highly labour-intensive and require a great deal of teamwork and coordination. At the same time, such projects are uncertain, temporary and sometimes fragmented. Accordingly, they are more likely to face construction delay. In fact, construction delay has been one of the most prominent issues in Indian construction project, caused by several reasons, most notably labour productivity.Through intensive reading of previous researches on the topic, 34 different labour productivity attributes are summarised for analysis.These attributes are constructed into a questionnaire survey using a five-point Likert scale (ranging from 1 = no effect to 5 = extremely significant effect) to collect data from construction professionals in India.Totally, 103 properly answered results are collected and are proceeded to be analysed using SPSS.Initially, reliability analysis is conducted by analysing the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin and Bartlett's Test, and Cronbach's alpha to ensure the validity and high internal consistency across all the data set. The attributes were categorised into management, design, monetary, labour, work condition and external factors. The Relative Importance Index is then calculated to study the impact of these attributes on construction delay. The findings indicate that "unavailability of construction materials" is the most impactful attribute affecting construction delay in India, followed by "delay in the delivery of construction materials" and "lack of labour skills and experiences". These attributes fall under the management, external factor and labour factor respectively. The present paper delivers recommendations for managers to improve labour productivity to achieve project success.
Does Job-oriented Work Style Contribute to Project Success?
Many Japanese companies are trying to adopt Western type of work style, making a change from Japan unique work style of “membership” type. The “Membership” style is characterized as “Generalist oriented” where an employee’s role and responsibilities are not explicitly defined. It is flexible, situational, and frequent job rotation. An employee is expected to have multiple capabilities to serve the company he/her belongs to.Western type of work style is characterized as “Specialist oriented”, where role and responsibilities are explicitly defined with clear Job description. The author takes the view that work style should have a significant impact on a project team culture and team building approach. Traditional project team is analogized “Orchestra team” (PMBOK○rGuide) where each player performs his/her role while a conductor (Project Manager) assembles the team efforts and lead the team performance. Whereas, incoming Agile team concept is self-organized team without a conductor. This paper covers differences in team building approaches between traditional project team and that of Agile team and its relationship to work style that a project initiating organization is adopting. Assuming work style reflects organizational culture, the discussion extends into cultural factors to facilitate Agile team which is imperative to support a current need of business agility. This paper also points out some of considerations for a company who is trying to make a change in work style should be aware of in team of project team development.
Transforming Ethiopian Construction Firms into Competitive Project Based Organizations: a Literature Review & Reflection for Future Research
Henok Asfaw Hailu，M. D. Pantaleo Rwelamila
Construction firms across the world work in a turbulent, dynamic, open, inconsistent and complex business environment. Local construction firms in Ethiopia and other developing countries are facing fierce competition from International construction giants and local market dynamics and other economic set-ups. A plethora of study reports on the Ethiopian construction industry found that most of the local contractors in Ethiopia have failed to deliver government and private projects in scheduled time and intended cost mainly due to their set-ups and capacity related problems. Hence the need to create an environment within the Ethiopian construction industry to allow construction firms as project based organization (PBOs) to transcend market dynamics and other economic set-ups challenges. Creating a conducive organizational environment for successful projects needs rethinking of the organizational design of the parent organization. A construction company is inherently a PBO as it executes most of its activities through construction projects. Different organizational design dimensions and their antecedents of PBOs were identified by prior studies. By studying the different unique characteristics of PBOs from project management literature, this paper extends the prior knowledge on organizational design of PBOs. The paper is based on the argument that six additional antecedents should be considered on the modified star model of PBOs besides the previously identified antecedents including: Awareness and knowledge of project management, Project core teams; Strategic project management information system; Readiness for change; Upper management support; and competency of project managers. From theory and practice of PBOs a research conceptual models is developed and research questions and propositions are advanced towards conducting an intensive study to develop a conceptual model.
The Usefulness of Adopting "Dynamic Delivery Method" for Training New Employees Remotely
Atsuki Judai，Yudai Oda
While remote working has been widely implemented and there has been interest in Dynamic Delivery method due to the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been little studies about educational effect of remote training. Also, little has been done to consider and share how to effectively adapt collaboration tools to remote training. Thus, in this paper, we describe the usefulness of remote training with Dynamic Delivery method and propose the effective way to use some specific collaboration tools in remote training.The first part of this paper attempts to consider the effect of training employees remotely with Dynamic Delivery method. First, we offer an overview of how training was implemented in remote situation and face-to-face situation in our company. Then, we compared the status and date of acquisition of some internal and external qualifications between employees trained remotely and those trained face-to-face. The results of this survey shows that there was no significant difference between these two groups. On this basis, we conclude that the remote training was enough educationally effective.The second part examines the pros and cons of some specific collaboration tools and suggest how to effectively utilize these tools in remote training. We evaluated four collaboration tools used in the internal remote training with the results of questionnaires carried out to the employees those trained remotely. Based on them, we offer suggestions on how to use these tools effectively.
A Study of Changes and Effects in the Leadership Style Demonstrated by Senior Project Managers
Kazuo Hosono，Ryoko Toyama
This paper investigates how senior experts, who are over 60 years old and formerly project manager, demonstrate leadership in project activities from the perspective of communication management and knowledge management in the System Engineering (SE) sector of a Japanese IT company A. In Japan, the number of experts over the age of 60 is increasing due to law 'the Act on Stabilization of Employment of Elderly Persons'. Some senior experts work as a project manager, but most of them support a project manager with their experience knowledge of project management and technical expertise. In Japan, senior experts will be rehired with the reemployment contract when they reach retirement age almost 60s. Concurrently they are naturally required to change their attitude and the way of communication with project members because their role shift from a project manager to a supporter as an expert. Since their communication styles vary from individual to individual, clarifying effective practices and their tendencies is an important theme for project activities in future Japan. This paper surveyed senior experts in the SE sector of IT company A the changes in their awareness of leadership before and after becoming senior experts. The results showed that senior experts are more likely to have a supportive leadership style, or servant leadership, compared to the style they had when they were managers. Also senior experts by utilizing their own experience and knowledge are trying to solve problems together with team members while supporting the awareness and learning of younger team members. In addition, this paper also confirms why they are choosing such a leadership style. Therefore, understanding these characteristics of these senior experts will enable us to practice project management that effectively manages senior experts.
The Role of Loyalty As the External Factors of Motivation Enhancement for the Information System Development Project
Ai Nakahara，Tetsuro Seki
To ensure project success, securing members' productivity is an essential factor that is often related to members' motivation levels. Niwa and Seki (2015) propose a motivation model named "Iterate MoCeGA model," getting the idea from Porter and Lawler (1968), for maintenance and improvement of project members' motivation. Most conventional motivation models are designed for one-time individual activity. In contrast, to ensure the next success, Niwa and Seki introduce the feedback-loops from the activity of lessons learned in the project closing process to the starting point of the Iterate MoCeGA Model. Activity of lessons learned in project management usually generates positive and motivative results without regard to project success/failure or accomplishment levels of planned objectives, and this feedback-loop transmits the positive results to each member of the next new project. In the discussion of the Iterate MoCeGA Model, the high loyalty between members and their organization that is required to maintain and improve the members' motivation is indicated. However, there are some incomplete items, e.g., discussion of the structure of mutual communication through the loyalty between members and the organization, and the relationship between maintenance and improvement mechanism of motivation and the levels of loyalty. Kotler (2000) and Onzo (2013) discuss the importance of customer orientation, i.e., loyalty between individuals as project members and their customers in the new product development process to maintain and to improve the individual's motivation. Their idea is applied to the project member's motivation-making process in this discussion. In this paper, the stakeholders related to motivation via highly loyalty are expanded to three factors: project members, their organization, and their customers. On the other hand, in general, the customer orientation in the discussion of new product development, and the essential policy of the quality management i.e., "the customer first," goes against the essence of enterprise management. Therefore, it is required to clear the generation system of the profits and the benefits among those three stakeholders mentioned above using the keywords of trust, mutual dependence relationship, and benefits to show the effectiveness and validity of the customer orientation for enterprise management. By declaration of the customer orientation policy by the organization, which is supported by the above discussion about the effectiveness and validity of the customer orientation, project members can make their loyalty to the customer, and this becomes the source of maintaining and improving members' motivation. In conclusion, based on the theoretical discussion including the literature studies, the new project member's motivation improvement and enhance mechanism related to loyalty is proposed and introduced as an external factor of the Iterate MoCeGA Model for the information system development.
Foster of Practical Engineering Graduated Through Worked-based Education and Overseas Collaboration
Paritud Bhandhubanyong，Pisit Charnkietkong，Tanyaluck Thanapakit
The curriculum and education process of the engineering students in Thailand tends to focus on theoretical knowledge with limited period of internships. Even though co-operation system has been developed and applied in several universities, the graduated skills in practical application are still left much to be desired. Panyapiwat Institute of Management (PIM), the first corporate university established 14 years ago applies the work-based education (WBE) for all of the students. The internships system in the Faculty of Engineering and Technology are 3-6-9 months of practical study over the four years period. Overseas collaboration with the City of Kitakyushu project has started over 4 years ago with already 3 batches of students doing the internships in the private companies there. This project has been continued ever since it started. Almost all of the students have been formally employed after the internships period. The language barrier of the students has been overcome by intensive courses, problem-based learning group projects, and short-term training. Tri-parties collaboration among public-private- educational institution is also a crucial factor. This paper will discuss the best-practices of the internships and overseas collaboration project management and the way forward to the expanding further.
On the Distributed Work Environment for Information System Development by Constrained Self-organization Theory
Ayana Hayashi，Sayaka Imai，Tetsuro Seki
Since the end of 2019, the COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically changed the working environment not only in Japan but throughout the world. Usually, for knowledge-intensive work, e.g., information system development, a unified and shared space based on collocation has been provided to make good communication among project members and to get a project success. For such conditions, to improve the team productivity and to achieve the goal, the structural functionalism initiated by Parsons is employed. However, the COVID-19 pandemic has forced project members to participate in projects with distributed work environments - with work arrangements, such as teleworking - making it the new normal. The new normal makes a denial of introducing the colocation and of managing the project team by the structural functionalism, and it requires the new method that can manage the work under the autonomous-distributed environment that can optimize the new work style. However, even under such a situation, most companies take a tendency to apply the conventional type of management to the new work environment and to employ the specified employment and/or performance appraisal to the individuals in the project. These isolate and/or separate individuals from project colleagues, and the contingency communication opportunities, which is required to solve the daily problems, to be missed, as the result, the project productivity is decreased. To solve such problems, one of the ideas is returning the work environment to the status before COVID-19 pandemic. In fact, some mega IT farms, e.g., Apple and Google, asked their employees to return to the office. However, such a policy is not always favorable because promoting work reform and solving the serious shortage of IT workers is essential for the continuing development of the IT industry in advanced countries. In this paper, buffer and backlog management is introduced to encourage passing his/her work to the other members and getting their support. The buffer management by the project leader/manager provides the timing to take over their work to the other members, and the backlog management, i.e., the policy of no-backlog, by each member is employed to remove the multi-tasks, to release the mental strain, and to except the critical delay of project work. Furthermore, to be this framework in active, the gamification is employed. Usually, for most individuals, easily release their work, which have even once assigned, without feeling any stress is difficult by the status quo bias and the other reasons. Therefore, by introducing the gamification, it provides an incentive evaluated via the points to their "cannot statement," individuals' originally should be negative attitude will be justified. Of course, the points will give to the in-time completion of their work and their effort to the work completion under the buffer management by project leader/manager. At the same time, the points and badges will be provided to the members, who accept the work that is taken over from the other member. They can choose their good activity with the understanding of human development policy of the project and the status of project progress: completion of the work or feedback the effective hints to the originating member to make an opportunity to complete the work. Using the proposed framework mentioned above, individuals' isolation and separation in the autonomous-distributed environment is reduced, and their self-organization, which is led by the positive ideas with some leader's constraints, induce individuals to each the optimal position and role.
Collaborative Work Culture to Enhance Effectiveness of Infrastructure Project Operations - Gateway for Digitalization
Infrastructure projects pounds money to the government and society. Nowadays, investment on Infrastructure projects is prone to risk as various external and internal factors drives from its inception to its end. AI adoption are visible in various sector with less weightage to Infrastructure sector due to its nature. Though the pandemic is treated as threat, but Infrastructure projects are preoccupied by challenges like maintaining of the Project Scope, handling of stakeholder, Technical interface, Supply chain issue over the ages. Various mundane activities are inevitable due to vast number of stakeholders in each project which leads to mutation of data, miscommunication within the network that end up with the wrong strategical decisions. Digitalization of Infrastructure project is a solution, but substantial efforts are required to wrap-up the entire facets of Infrastructure projects as digitization are influenced by various parameter that spread across the ecosystem in each Project viz interface among the stakeholders, cross border concern like diversified culture & Government policies. It will be deemed as a revolution to set-up a digitized platform, but it prospects various sector after implementation and pave the way to new investment in this sector with innovative manner. To achieve this Herculean task, each process involved in the Project need to be digitized both internally and externally in a broad spectrum enveloped by its strategic goal.
Positive Risk Management for Organizational Agility
Value added project is a place of the co-creation with a service provider and a customer. It is necessary to have skills of Design Thinking, Agile Development, cutting-edge technical skills, and managing uncertainty so that a service provider shows a performance enough.This paper focuses on managing uncertainty, and explains how to utilize the principles both of Design Thinking and Agile Development. Disincentives are lack of understanding to the project in the organization, various bias in organizations, teams, and individuals, and lack of financial resources and human resources.On the other hand, driving factors are the appropriate authority use of the decision-maker, a secured team with psychological safety, and practitioners who behave along principles. Then, when these all are here, project team will be able to create impact full outcome with sense of speed.It is important to correct a negative aspect, which is traditional risk management, but it is also important to focus on a positive side more and to invest in the expansion of the promotion factor. It is the key to value creation project. And these will help organizational agility and lead to sustainable business management and operation either.Organizations which select advanced approach know that many business issues can be solved by technology, and they decide to invest in knowledge and skills for their innovative activities. This paper introduces some examples utilizing the Minimum Viable Product (MVP) to connect with the next step as managing positive risks.
Application of Time Management Matrix to Control the Scope Creeps
Requirement definition phase is still important in digital transformation to clarify what the clients want and the backgrounds of the requirements. However, more than half of system development overdue are caused by failure of requirement definition phase. Those failures cause the scope creeps, in other words, the scope increase. Unless the scope creep is controlled properly, the required resource exceeds the planned one. As a result, there will be the risks of quality decline and cost overrun as well as the risk of overdue.So, it is important for the contractor to prioritize the requests by communicating with the client when the scope creep occurs at the requirement definition phase or the other phases."Time management matrix," which was introduces in "The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People" by Stephen R. Covey, is known as a useful tool to prioritize the requests. I introduce the effects of time management matrix to mitigate the risks caused by scope creep in a project which I was in charge of.
Proposal of Cost Management Method for Electrothermal Film Manufacturing Based on Program Management.
Bowen Xu，Hironori Takuma
The electrothermal films are widely used in house heating system, fog removal film, heating pad and so on. At present, the development of electrothermal film technology is relatively mature, and the competitive directions of the manufacturing industry are focused on cost control, sales and brand value. Although the electrothermal film manufacturing company used various means to control costs, it did not meet the expectations of managers. There are three main problems: (1) Reasons for causing the costs are ignored in cost control; (2) Setting of product price lacks the support of cost data; (3) Excessive cost control for product cost reduction. In this paper, we propose a method to calculate the process cost of the operating cost calculation method by applying the concept of support process in program management.Firstly, the support processes are built that includes cost estimation, cost prediction, cost accounting, cost analysis and cost final accounts. Next, the process costs in the various stages of electrothermal film manufacturing are calculated according to the above support process. Finally, the quantitative comparison between the proposed cost calculation method and traditional methods is carried out to verify the effectiveness. The proposed method will increase the maturity of the electrothermal film manufacturing and sales process, and can be expected to improve product competitiveness in mature markets.
Proposal of Cost Management Method for Electrothermal Film Manufacturing Based on Program Management.
Bowen Xu，Hironori Takuma
In this research, we propose a method to calculate the process cost of the operating cost calculation method by applying the concept of support process in program management. This will increase the maturity of the electric heating film manufacturing and sales process, and can be expected to improve product competitiveness in mature markets.
Research on Organizational Efforts Affecting Promotion of Digital Transformation
Tomoyuki Kawamura，Tetsuya Toma，Haruyasu Noguchi
It is said that most Japanese companies have not sufficiently achieved the results of digital transformation (DX), therefore it is necessary to develop the capability to promote DX efficiently. This study aims to identify the key organizational efforts that promote DX based on organizational size in order to contribute to the efficient promotion of DX in companies. Utilizing the 123 available data of DX promotion metrics collected by the Information-technology Promotion Agency, Japan (IPA), the authors attempted to identify the relationship between 19 organizational efforts and the ratio of digital services to sales (DS ratio), which is one of the DX goals. As a result of applying statistical techniques to these data, it was identified that five organizational efforts are related to the DS ratio regardless of organizational size, and 13 organizational efforts are related to DS ratio only in large organizations. Considering these results, it was proposed for companies of all sizes that "management should lead the transformation of business models, business processes, and corporate culture while continuously showing their vision" and "internal and external collaboration should be maintained" in order to increase the DS ratio. In addition, two points were proposed for small companies: "focus on frequent communication by top management for transformation" and "utilization of external education systems to make up for back-office resource shortages." Alternatively, three points were proposed to large companies: "appropriate sharing of a sense of crisis for employees," "development of robust organizational systems, and clarification of the roles and responsibilities for transformation," and "implementation of optimal education systems by utilizing back-office resources." It is expected that most companies could efficiently increase their digital service to sales ratio by improving their organization in consideration of the research results.
Influence of Synchronous Behavior on Student Piracy Prevention
Yudai Hashimoto，Hironori Takuma
In recent years, while the importance of intellectual property rights has increased, there have been many cases of infringing those rights. According to a survey of elementary school students to college students, the information ethics awareness of college students, who have the most contact with society and begin to use electronic devices for spontaneous play, is the lowest, and the main reason is that they do not directly damage themselves. As a result of conducting a questionnaire of effective nudge tools for university students in the previous research, it became clear that two nudge tools, "availability / emotion heuristic", are effective for students. However, since the nudge tool of the existence of others (synchronous behavior) used in the above-mentioned questionnaire had to evaluate each nudge tool by asking in the questionnaire form, "I saw criticism comments of the site by users who are not using it. However, it was necessary to analyze again, keeping in mind whether the question text was appropriate. In this study, the existence (synchronous behavior) of others used in the previous study is divided into "informational influence" and "normative influence", and does it actually affect the prevention of copyright infringement of students, we used a web survey to compare and analyze the results of the existence of others obtained in the previous survey. As a result of the questionnaire, it became clear that "the influence of information" is effective in preventing copyright infringement of students. From these results, it was found that there is a strong consciousness to imitate the behavior of others, and when used as a nudge, synchronized behavior can also be an effective nudge tool. In the future, we can expect the effect of preventing copyright infringement of university students by devising a survey method again based on the results obtained this time and conducting a demonstration experiment.
Proposal for a Method of Extracting and Inheriting Attributes of Project Lessons That Are Difficult to Document in Writing
Yuya Kawakami，Hironori Takuma
In this study, we present an approach for the extraction of lesson attributes that are difficult to clarify and how to pass them on. First, we conducted a questionnaire survey on lessons that are difficult to clarify in line with academic research related to knowledge systems, education, and businesses that focus on knowledge inheritance. The responses were divided into two groups, namely those that are difficult to clarify and those that are not difficult to clarify. The items that showed significant differences were extracted as lessons that are difficult to clarify. As a method of communicating these lessons, we examined the difference in the degree of understanding when the lessons were taught through videos. This study helps in developing methods of communicating information based on academic and numerical evidence, and it is expected to promote the education of newcomers and facilitate knowledge sharing within and between companies.
Face New Faces in Their New Phases
As capability development is a continuing challenge for both individuals and organizations, project managers need to take an active role in assisting their team members in this regard. They should also put efforts into supporting their adjustment to new project environments as "culture shock" they might feel could hinder their teams from demonstrating their best capabilities.In this paper, the author discusses common issues and effective actions to achieve success in these two aspects of project manager's roles, based on the lessons learned from 25 cases she has engaged in the recent 5 years.New hires fresh out of college are usually recognized as trainees and provided with good support. Even so, they often get frustrated, despite their high motivation, with their own helplessness in the real-world workplace. An effective way to help them handle such "culture shock" is encouraging them to discuss their problems with a project senior member so that their personal issues and solutions become clear to them. It should be noted that the level of effectiveness depends on who the listeners are. For mid-career hires new in the organization, "culture shock" is a bigger issue. As they don't want to fall short of the team's expectations, they might be reluctant to share their problems. Observing and catching their physical expressions and taking proactive communication with them are effective ways for project managers to get them out of their silent struggle.Compared to those newly hired, the organization's existing employees assigned to new roles seem to have more complicated issues. They are sometimes unconsciously bound with their past experiences and become negative to the changes they face in the new environment. The author has experienced few cases to find effective solutions but would like to indicate that the issue needs to be recognized.
Case Study of the Effect of Mutual Understanding Among Stakeholders and Organizational Factors on Quality and Delivery Time in a TSP-based Project
Akira Akamatsu，Yoshihiro Akiyama，Masanobu Umeda
Practical analysis reports on software development processes including Team Software Process (TSP) often focus on reviews, tests, and teamwork that are directly related to quality and delivery. Our practical experience of TSP, however, suggest that business and organizational factors have an indirect but influential effect on quality and delivery time. The analysis results based on process data and project members' state can be summarized in the following three points. The first is the mutual understanding of business between the project owner and members. The owner is expected to demonstrate his expectations for the project in the launch meeting of TSP. The meeting is, however, often short and only a mere formality due to tight schedule. In contrast, the meeting in this project lasted for more than two hours. This stimulated understanding of the members and allowed them to achieve a state-of-the-art functionality in spite of a tight schedule. The second is the engagement of senior management in the project. For example, when the project was delayed by about 20%, management reviews were conducted in the weekly meetings, and issues and risks were discussed about with senior management. As a result, the task times of members increased by about 17% and the delay was recovered. These results suggest the involvement of senior management had a positive impact on the motivation of project members. The third is the organizational factors. Resource allocation authority of a project leader is generally very limited, and it often takes time to deal with resource shortages. In this project, the authority for project members was delegated to the project leader in the launch meeting. This delegation helped quick problem resolution due to resource contention. These results suggest that promoting mutual understanding in business and enabling prompt resolution of organizational issues ensure the success of the project.
Hypothesis Verification of the Degree of Influence of Information Display Methods Using Nudge Tools on Intellectual Property Rights
Yudai Hashimoto，Hironori Takuma
In recent years, there have been many cases of infringing the intellectual property rights of young people due to their low awareness of information ethics. The main reason is that it does not damage itself directly. Therefore, in this study, which information expression methods (posters, videos, comments) are effective for students in order to further strengthen the nudge tools (availability / emotion heuristics) that have been found to be effective for students in previous studies. Check if it is. First, we conducted a questionnaire on how to express information and cases of copyright infringement. Divide posters, videos, and comments into populations, perform t-tests, extract means and standard deviations as "effective ways to represent information," and verify that effective nudge tools are enhanced. Through these verifications, students can raise awareness of information ethics, encourage voluntary action towards intellectual property management, and expect corporate compliance measures.
Engineering in the Time of COVID:
Submarine telecommunications cables connect continents and communities around the world. Once the cables are constructed, data capacity expansion projects are typically initiated to maximize the value of these capital assets. These expansion projects are generally implemented on ever-shorter timescales, while avoiding any impact on existing telecommunications traffic on the same cable. They have also typically required the continuous presence of experienced engineers at each cable landing site, to fine-tune the submarine cable transmission infrastructure.Since the COVID-19 pandemic, many meetings and operations have been carried out remotely via video calls. Accordingly, telecommunication demands have rapidly increased, placing additional demands for capacity expansion on submarine cable systems. This paper describes how NEC has expanded the capacity of submarine cable systems under the COVID-19 pandemic, despite immigration restrictions. Unable to send engineers from Japan, we trained local teams and remotely supported their work to overcome such restrictions, achieving the contracted capacity expansion without any deterioration of quality.
Change of Project Management Due to the Pandemic
Covid-19 has had a strong impact on our IT project management. A state of emergency was issued due to the spread of the virus. It became difficult to predict economic activities even those that may take place only a week in the future. Therefore, our clients need a system that can flexibly respond to changes. For that reason we can't contribute to society unless we develop a system as fast as possible. It cannot be achieved by conventional Waterfall model.I think there are three major success factors that contribute in achieving high-level flexibility and fast developments. The first is close communication with customers to resolve a large number of requests promptly. The Clients need to provide us with the latest information even though they may not be accurate. We will start preparing for the next developments based on the that information. This may involve some backtracking in certain cases, but this method has increased development speed. Communication is the most important factor in increasing development speed. The second is to determine what to develop as a system and what to do with human operations. If the changes are drastic like these days, systematization may become an obstacle. In that case, it is better not to over develop the system more than necessary and to use human operations. The third is cost control. Some margin is needed to maintain speed and response to change in system development. It is important to agree in advance with the customer on how many members we will be assigned to the system development.
Making Sense of Establishing an Innovative Public-Private Partnership (PPP) Projects Framework for Service Delivery in Municipalities – the Case of South Africa
Budu Manaka，Prof. P.D Rwelamila
Public-Private Partnership (PPP) has been hailed as one of the key mechanisms that can be used to unlock service delivery in municipalities. The PPP framework provides an ecosystem that makes it possible to implement turnkey initiatives that will result in the required service delivery to communities with a long-term development objective. There are several municipal PPP framework guidelines developed by the PPP fraternity to guide local governments to understand and implement PPPs using the PPP framework. Practical examples of such initiatives include establishing renewable energy initiatives; building infrastructure (e.g. schools, roads, clinics); financing alternative technology initiatives (e.g. water management, sanitation, waste disposal); procurement of equipment and machinery (for public transport, agriculture, health); and renovation, upgrades, replacement and maintenance of aging municipal infrastructure. However, when reviewing literature, it emerged that some emerging economies have established municipal PPP frameworks yet municipalities from these countries are not keen to enter into such partnerships. There is no coherent published information to indicate the reasons why municipalities have no appetite to use the PPP framework; which factors inhibit the use of these frameworks; and which components of the framework present challenges and limitations when implementing service delivery-related initiatives. It also emerged that there is limited published information to indicate which best practice theories and strategies can be applied as enablers for unlocking the use of the framework; and what are the emerging perceptions and ideas for modifying the existing framework to make it practical and functional for use by municipalities. This paper flags the information gaps noted from literature and presents a research conceptual framework (with clear research questions and propositions) for reviewing challenges emerging from this municipal PPP framework and to recommend amendments that will make it easier for municipalities to use the framework to roll out their service delivery PPP-related projects.
A Proposal on Customer Benefits Driven Model for Agile Project
Chika Yoshida，Tetsuro Seki
Recently, agile development methods have been increasingly employed in large-scale projects in Japan.Introducing agile development models, such as Scrum, encourages user participation in the project and contributes to ensuring successful communication between the user and the vendor, which enables the speedy elimination of uncertainties that existed at the start of the project under a good partnership. As a result, it also contributes to ensuring the success of the project. On the other hand, the status of a project is shared sequentially and concretely, as such, the levels of customer benefits realized have been evaluated more rigorously than before. In this paper, the structure of customer benefits in information system development is first clarified. Using these results, a customer benefits driven model is proposed to obtain a basis for introducing the idea to project management practices. To confirm the validity of the proposed model, a customer benefits driven model, when employing the waterfall model as the basis of development, is compared with the characteristics of the driven structure of customer benefits that are sequentially obtained via the agile information system development in the proposed model. The efficiency of this proposed model is confirmed based on this comparison.
Fujitsu Oceania's Lean-Agile Journey into the Digital Era
In June 2020, Fujitsu announced their 5 Country Gold Transformation partnership with Scaled Agile Inc. the provider of the world's leading Agile-at-Scale framework, the Scaled Agile Framework.This paper showcases how we have leveraged this partnership and implemented the Scaled Agile Framework within Service Delivery and Portfolio in the Oceania region. It explores the journey taken through reaching a 'tipping point', establishing a Lean-Agile Centre of Excellence, and launching a large-scale Agile transformation through an Agile Release Train (ART). It also explores some the key benefits and challenges we encountered as part of our journey.The paper assumes the reader has a basic knowledge of Agile concepts. It also discusses several advanced'Agile at Scale' concepts which will be quite new to many readers.
Issues and Practices in Onsite Development in COVID-19
Recently, the global labor market was forced to undergo dramatic changes. The greatest change is probably the shift to remote working.In Japan as well, this new working style rapidly spread after the declaration of a state of emergency amid the novel COVID-19 crisis.In project activities as well, while remote work is being promoted to prevent the spread of COVID-19, there are many cases where on-site work is essential due to environmental constraints. As a project risk manager, the author experienced a COVID-19 pandemic in an on-site development project, and considered project activities issues and measures.First, based on the knowledge obtained, issues related to projects that require on-site work were organized from the perspective of business impact and business continuity.Then, in response to the issues, the risk management, change management, and infection risk reduction measures implemented in the project activities were evaluated.The contents organized this time are just the results of a case study. In the future, it will be possible to respond more effectively by examining the characteristics of the foreign project and other cases.Currently, Japan is in a transitional period of vaccination. It is necessary to consider whether or not project activities are applied according to the vaccination situation, with reference to cases in Europe, etc., which are leading the way in vaccination. However, there is a high possibility that discrimination will be based on the presence or absence of vaccines, and it is necessary to consider the future policy of Japan as a whole.
QADEx- Data Analysis & Interpretation is Key to a Quality Champion
Rabindra Parida，Chandramouli Nakkina
In todays world, organizations across the spectra of service delivery and customer management are aligning to the rising demand of data analysis, visualization & interpretation of the data with an objective to instill a culture of quantitatively driven value addition to the customers. Fujitsu India, as an organization which aimed for CMMI SVC 2.0 Level 5 certification felt the urge to have a system in place that not only fosters a data driven culture but makes it persistence & habitual, with the big goal in mind. Quality Assurance & Delivery Excellence function launched a unique and holistic program called Quality Champion, with an intent of capability building of its mid level managers with and set objective To create a pool of self-sufficient and data-driven champions to provide quantitative value add to the customers, thereby amplifying the continuous improvement journey in the organization. The Authors of this white paper having successfully driven this program and having facilitated on topics i.e. Business Objective, Metrics (KPI), process controls, risk management, predictive analysis, Six Sigma, Kojo (Lean) for two consecutive years and having observed benefits coming out of this program. So the authors are excited to share, how the program has been executed and the case study with a wider audience. The output of these trained professionals resulted in continuous & quantitative value adds to the customers through proven methodology like Six Sigma & Lean and due applauses from wide range of customers is the testimony. On a precise note, the authors have leveraged the Data Oriented Ecosystem of Improvement in the organization through this program.
Quality Success Catalyst
V.Kalyani Yadav，C.Shreya Bhosale
The paper for Quality Success Catalyst describes the role to sustain the quality of the process for the large projects and withstand the compliance as per quality parameters. This is implemented in one of the largest BFSI account in Fujitsu. Being large project, with complex environment and multiple technologies to be supported, demanded a huge amount of documentation that need to be cross referenced and linked together. The various audits such as Focus and Cluster based audits were initiated as per QAG frame work of the organization, which was specific to towers where all towers need to be compliant for defined parameters and also some set of documents were mandate for all the towers. This was a stringent task in case this is missed it may impact the overall project score and maturity level. Also we got an opportunities to plan CSIP and encouraged team to initiate Service Improvement Plans, Kakushin, and Success Stories to keep the scores up to the mark. This was appealing concept for the team members to get help from someone who is knowledgeable of the standards and procedures. Such a project required skilled staff to implement the standards and maintain the quality of the project for longer duration. This was achieved successfully in the project. It has undoubtedly continued to be an important process to achieve high level of quality and customer satisfaction. This process has a greater flexibility within the organization in their creation of Quality Management System, which can make it easier than ever to incorporate the requirements into their day to day activities. Also it has streamlined with regards to project management activities such as On boarding process and easy guidelines which was created for the new joiners in the project for the activities which needs to be performed when they initially joined. After all this is the best and only way that Quality Management System can be effective and provide the greatest benefit to organization for every large project.
Detailed Usage of EVM in Project Cases and Advantages of Division
EVM (Earned Value Management) is a general method for project management and is recommended by Japanese government guidelines.For this reason, it is used in various projects in Japan, including government projects.However, EVM is not a versatile tool in project management, and even if it is used casually, there are cases where the information we want cannot be obtained.For example, even if we are aware of the risks for each phase, the content may not be reflected correctly in the EVM indicators.My previous research focused on that issue and raised the issue that overall EVM evaluations could not take appropriate corrective actions for each process at the right time.In addition, without introducing complicated statistical methods and new indicators into the project, the content needed to be easy to use even in an actual project. In that case, in a short project of about half a year, by dividing the whole into 3 main processes and deriving the EVM, a method was presented that makes it easy to identify problems and grasp the status of the project.However, in the case of a project with a long period, this method may not be suitable as a management unit in terms of "understanding schedule delay", "management man-hours", and "schedule and cost correlation", so verification is required.Therefore, for an actual project that exceeds one year, EVM is obtained by performing detailed process division, and this method is compared in the overall version and the main process versions.This paper makes a comparison in terms of "understanding schedule delay," "management workload," and "schedule and cost correlation," and reports the results of using EVM in this case.
PROPELR [PROject PErformance Linked Results] - Single Window Executive Dashboard
Sikkander Badhusha，Chandramouli Nakkina
In todays fast-paced business world, executives and managers seek access to their project data in real time. On the other side, data gets generated every day increasingly and the need of the hour is to have a system that can host an organized data and gives ease of access to the user to perform customized analysis. Teams who are responsible to manage these data and generate reports are spending substantial amount of bandwidth to ensure data correctness and making it visually appealing, so that it transmit the intended message to the leaders. This case study talks on a Dynamic Dashboard - PROPELR, which solves the above said problems and provides the leaders a free hand to explore micro level data that are key to organizational success. PROPELR helps monitoring the KPIs by slicing and dicing the data in multiple dimensions, thus enabling the leaders to take proactive decisions. This also gives quick access and provide insights to do competitive analysis that require immediate attention. In addition, this significantly reduces the effort spent on report generation process with an added advantage of enhanced aesthetic. In precise, lesser effort and massive benefits on data handling and reporting. The intent of the author is to elicit and emphasize the establishment of this comprehensive KPI dashboard that helps analyzing huge datasets with no additional cost and only by optimizing Advanced Excel functionality for effective business decisions.
Built-in-Cost Reduction in Submarine Cable Projects
Mikinori Niino，Soma Shikimi，Yukinori Toyota，Takahiro Kashima，Kazuhiro Morise，Stuart Wright，Simon Webster
Cost reduction is one of the most important factors in the execution of every project. We implement submarine fiber optic cable transmission systems all over the world. Internet traffic is increasing rapidly, therefore providing systems with lower price per bit price is important for our customers, as well as securing our profit as a primary supplier.In this paper we discuss methods of Built-in-Cost reduction, which reduce costs without "hard price negotiation",showing some examples. Submarine telecommunication cable systems are supplied on a turn-key basis as normal practice. The project scope covers all aspects from the design to the handover the system, such as selection of cable route, marine route field survey, manufacturing of equipment, installation and commissioning. Although the system is implemented in accordance with as detailed specification, there is a certain degree of flexibility in design due to such a wide coverage of scope of work. We can achieve cost reductions by finding such flexibility points and by taking the measures which we focus on in this paper. Taking a recent project as a successful example, we found the flexibilities in cable landing points and cable route on the seabed. In general, landing points and cable routes are identified during a Desk top Study (DTS). Landing points are typically selected from existing sites where many cables land and use the customer's existing facilities. This then dictates the design within the DTS. However the project discussed in this paper was the first submarine cable to arrive in this region so there were no existing cables or existing landing points, which meant we did not need to follow the traditional approach with landing points and cable routes pre-selected in the DTS. During site visits, local marine charts, and historic satellite images were used to select potential landing points and design the submarine cable route to achieve cost reductions by simplifying the costly marine installation work.
Successful Cases of Communication Management in "New Normal"
Takuya Motohashi，Risa Noda，Keisuke Ishigo
With the spread of COVID-19, remote work is recommended in Japan to reduce the risk of infection. Prior to the COVID-19 outbreak, "face-to-face work" was routine in various industries, and remote work was not actively implemented. Our project, which is engaged in the system industry, has been promoting remote work since last year. However, the rapid expansion of remote work caused communication loss, causing problems with QCD, which had been managed normally. In the current situation where remote work is "New Normal ", we are required to solve these problems that affect QCD. To solve the problem, we analyzed the implementation rate of remote work in the project and the impact of remote work on QCD. From the results of questionnaires and analysis within the project, it turned out that communication preparation was necessary to promote remote work and lead the project to success. We think that incorporating this communication preparation into project management in "New Normal" will become "New Normal" in the system industry. In this paper, we will introduce the basic concept required for project management in "New Normal" and examples of projects that have achieved the QCD goal through appropriate management while boasting a high implementation rate of remote work.
Transforming Traditional PM Skills and Disciplines into an Agile Delivery Capability
The traditional professional PM centres around the classic Time-Cost-Quality triangle. When asking these same professionals to adopt agile delivery it has been met with concern and even contempt. When asking what does agile mean, you would typically get a range of different views but with the vast range of agile frameworks and tools available should not be a surprise. Given the recognised business need to transform the capability of our PMs, we originally embarked on a comprehensive agile training and Certification program. However, our PMs struggled to understand what Agile really was and indeed the relevance of Agile in their role. We came to the conclusion that rather than train on a specific methodology, we needed to change the mindset, language, behaviours and tools used by our PMs. However we saw an opportunity to make this change through adapting - to get our PM’s to recognise (but not throw away) some of the intrinsic skills they have but adapt some of this to an agile way of working. The journey we have started takes the PM’s through a 2-day highly interactive training course (an “Agile Bootcamp”) where we de-mystified myths, explained and tested participants understanding of agile mindset, values, principles and some common processes. We take them through several exercises to reinforce the learning and basically ensure they enjoy the learning and see how they too could adapt and begin to adopt agile ways of working. This has resulted in not just having agile delivery capability but even projects delivered in a more traditional waterfall way but adopting behaviours from Agile (collaboration), have resulted in increased customer satisfaction!
Considerations on Mainframe Application Migration in Project Planning Phase
Cloud migration of IT systems is accelerating year by year to meet the needs of process efficiency and response to business model transformation. Even for mainframe applications, migration is unavoidable due to concerns about future shortages of legacy IT personnel. However, mainframe systems are not easy to migrate due to the sheer volume and complexity of their program assets and the severe requirements for availability. Migration by rehosting or rewriting can be an effective option in cases where a drastic system rebuild cannot be performed immediately. This paper describes what should be considered when planning migrations by rehosting or rewriting mainframe applications. First, it is common for these projects to utilize mechanical conversion by tools from the viewpoint of efficiency. However, not all assets can be converted mechanically. The effect of modifying the tool or rebuilding assets without using the conversion tool should be considered. Next, the validity of conversion results is generally evaluated by matching the processing results of the current and new system. To ensure the sufficiency of test cases, what test perspectives to set up and how to prepare test cases that meet those perspectives should be considered. Then, it should be also considered to evaluate issues that cannot be solved by rehosting or rewriting in light of the purpose of the project.
Challenging Situations and Best Possible Approach & Practices to Deal with 24*7 Monitoring Projects
Though the subject of this paper sounds very general and simple, it is very challenging for a Team Lead or Manager to run 24*7 monitoring projects for years together with desired Quality, Unity and Integrity.There are lot many learnings we can come across even on day to day basis. Our main motto of writing this paper is to share the trends and challenges in such projects which can be helpful for those who need to handle 24*7 environment monitoring projects.The observations mainly include:Management of people who are working in 24*7 environment, their work-life balance, extract the expected quality work from them and coordination between internal management and client.Here we have tried to put forth best possible practices or solutions, appropriate thought process to achieve Golden Mean in adverse situations.People Management is a major problem in such projects. Working in 24*7 shift environment has always been a challenge in many ways. We were NO EXCEPTION to face that challenge and experienced similar challenges while dealing with people and performance.For 24*7 environment projects, the challenges we mentioned as well as the unforeseen challenges are bound to come.Nature of the project itself demands acceptance to these challenges.At the same time, we need to be considerate with members' physical, emotional health without compromising quality of the deliverables we are providing to the client. It is always a Win-Win situation where project members and client both are happy and satisfied.It also needs support from management.
Communication Challenges in Multi-vendor Project Management Under the Pandemic
Yusuke Toguchi，Wataru Sakuma
After the worldwide expansion of Covid-19, various telecommunication tools have become something required for business. However, the situation may not be the same for all. The project described in this report, as a sample, is a closed plant factory that was built in 2020, located about 300km away from Tokyo. Yet face-to-face communication was considered to be very important among the stakeholders. Due to the Covid-19 pandemic, our group company restricted employees to travel across prefectures, especially from Tokyo, which our office was located. Our measure against the situation was to communicate with stakeholders by using telecommunication tools, but it was not as easy as it sounds. Since most stakeholders chose to communicate gathered in one room, it was hard to gather all the needed information via remote. Due to such a situation, many details, yet very important to us, were once changed without any notices to us - for example, spec or number of the devices, etc. In order to recover, the first action we took was an analog one – asking for permission to go to the site, but only one person at a time. This is based on our judgment that it was impossible to obtain all the needed information. If someone is there, however, we could collect information, such as small updates reflected only on a paper stored in the field office. Second, we set the rules for information sharing for our group, including web-based periodic meetings and information sharing systems to enhance internal communication. This project provided us a lot of lessons for management. One is that technology must be used in the right situation and with the right stakeholders. Another is that going for analog is sometimes the only right choice. No matter how communication tools are improved, they will lose efficiency under unsuitable circumstances. We would like to share the precept learned through this project.
Proposal of System Test Automation Method
Tomoya Shinozaki，Hideto Ogasawara
In order to conduct system testing, it is necessary to create a test specification. One of the methods for creating test specifications is combinatorial testing. Combinatorial testing is a technique that uses orthogonal tables and the all-pairs method to rationally select test cases from among combinations of factors and levels in order to improve testing efficiency.The purpose of system testing is to verify that the software is implemented according to the specifications and design, and to detect defects. Therefore, omissions in the test items may lead to regressions and defects after release.In addition, as the complexity of systems and software increases, the number of combinations of test cases increases exponentially, and it is practically difficult to perform 100% coverage of tests. Furthermore, as systems and software become larger, the scale of software development tends to increase. These factors make the cost of testing even more necessary. For this reason, many companies are working on test support using an approach called "test automation," in which machines are used to replace tasks that used to be done manually. However, even with test automation, if there are omissions in the test specifications, or omissions or entry errors in the test scenarios that have been set up, it cannot be said that testing is being done efficiently.Based on the above, we created a test specification template to describe the contents of automated tests without omissions, and automatically generated a combination test specification from the template. Furthermore, we create test scenarios for test automation based on the created test specifications. We then propose a test automation method using the test specifications and test scenarios.
A Study of Methodologies to Acquire Customer Needs.
Understanding needs of customer, who will use outputs of project, is very important to execute project successfully. Then, customer or user interviews on very early stage in project and customer involvements through whole stages in project are strongly recommended in project management theory. In case of customers or users have clear ideas and they can explain those ideas to other persons, project members can understand very well. Under such situation, the project will progress smoothly. On the other hand, sometime we find the project, that customers or users don’t have clear ideas and opinions, in reality. On that case, project may have hard time especially in user test phase, and project outputs are not useful in operation after the end of project. In this study, methodologies those are useful to understand unclear customer or user needs are discussed, for example, Ethnography and Grounded Theory Approach. Ethnography is a methodology, developed and mainly used in study area of anthropology. Some companies are using ethnography to understand customer needs. Grounded Theory Approach was introduced the book titled "The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research" by Glaser and Strauss in 1967. It is useful methodology to find important elements and structure in our thought or emotion.
Hint & Tips on System Architecture Unraveled from OpenAPI Cooperation Platform Construction
With the establishment of the "Law to partially revise the Banking Act, etc. in May 2017" and its enforcement in June 2018, financial institutions will be obliged to provide open APIs.Recently, on the premise of using open APIs, various services provided by fintech operators are on the rise.Currently, financial institutions continue to develop toward the provision of new services using open APIs in line with the business strategies of each company.After building an OpenAPI cooperation platform at a certain financial institution, it has been provided since then, and services are still being added.As the PM of the project, we will consider the issues that have come to light and the points that should be considered.Ideal development environment that is conscious of a wide variety of connection destinations.Software life cycle in Cloud system (Iaas)Points to consider when making a public connection on IBM Cloud, etc.We hope that it will help those who are involved in the construction of the OpenAPI cooperation platform from now on.Key word: Open API, Banking, Infrastructure
Development of a Case Search Retrieval System Using Software Process Improvement Activity Factors
Yuki Konno，Hideto Ogasawara
One of the issues in conducting software process improvement activities (Called SPI activities) is that it is difficult to adapt the results of past SPI activities to the environment of one's own organization. To address this issue, the authors have conducted research based on previous studies that investigated the factors that affect the success of SPI activities. Specifically, in the previous studies, there were 19 factors and indicators that influence the success of SPI, but it was not possible to find examples that matched the environment of the organization. Therefore, we expanded the list of factors and indicators in the existing studies, and proposed a diagnostic form for selecting SPI cases using these factors and indicators. As a result, the total number of factors and indicators was increased from 19 items to 28 items. In this paper, we report on the system for extracting cases using the proposed SPI case selection diagnostic form and its effects. Specifically, we mapped 150 papers submitted to an organization that aims to provide a place to accumulate and report the results of SPI activities onto the SPI Case Selection Diagnostic Sheet. Then, we compared the method of retrieving case studies using the mapped SPI Case Selection Diagnostic Form with the general method of retrieving case studies and verified whether or not the case studies could actually be retrieved. As a result of the verification, it was confirmed that the proposed method can be used for case retrieval and that it is effective enough for case retrieval. On the other hand, the proposed method does not take into account whether a keyword is important or not when a case retriever searches for a case, so there is a remaining issue of systematically retrieving cases after determining the weighting of the keyword.
Predicting Success at the Early Stage of a Project
At an early stage of a project, project managers need a way to connect concrete actions to factors that affect project success. This study seeks to upgrade project management by using machine-learning technologies to predict project results. Based on “knowledge assets” held by project managers and other project characteristics, we predict the success of projects with respect to quality, cost, delivery time and customer satisfaction using the machine learning model, "Deep Tensor" and Random Forest and Multiple Regression approaches. The prediction results suggest that the prediction accuracy of the Deep Tensor model is more accurate than that of the Random Forest model and the multiple regression model. It is also presented how to use this model to recommend specific advice by using the factors that most influenced the model’s predictions. This research provides a method for sharing knowledge, which was difficult to share across projects, will be useful for early and concrete improvement measures in the project execution phase. The data drawn from project knowledge assets might depend on the characteristics of the project, and the priorities of actions for project success may depend on project characteristics. It might be possible to construct an appropriate knowledge asset by repeatedly trying to describe the feature of the project. The framework presented in this study can help with this type of project-knowledge-based asset development.
Project Management Evaluation Method Using the Log Data of Inter-Organizational Communication
Gongyi Liu，Kotaro Ohno，Shin-ichiro Yokoyama，Ishii Nobuaki
In Japan, engineers who have extensive project management experience have retired due to aging and decreased. However, organizations require certain capabilities to lead complex project management, such as IT system modernization and new technology adaptation. To this end, organizations focus on utilizing data collected by their business tools. For project management, there is a difference between collectible and usable data by project phase, because the project has the characteristics of uniqueness and periodicity. In addition, it is difficult to get suggestions from a large amount of data. This study proposes a risk evaluation method to support the project manager, who requires suggestions for efficiently leading a project.Experienced project managers will effectively use communication. When this experience is supplemented by abundant data, it is not always possible for individuals to use the data accurately. Against this background, the use of Artificial Intelligence technology is being studied for abundant data related to communication. It is still necessary, however, for AI and humans to collaborate so that humans can interpret the results of AI. It is possible to supplement human judgment and experience with various AI technologies.A project may not progress as expected because the specifications are unclear, the project goal is ambiguous, the scheduled progress management and verification is insufficient, or the amount of work completed is insufficient. These problems can be resolved with sufficient communication.In this study, we focused on identifying risk factors that cannot be judged only by indicators such as volume by using data accumulated with a focus on communication. The proposed method uses data about inter-organizational communication and evaluates a project from multi-dimensional viewpoints. The method adopts sparse modeling for data selection and uses a data analysis from a multidimensional perspective. This paper also reports the result of a feasibility study using simple project data.
Using Functional Resonance Analysis Method in Initial Requirement Modeling in Agile Project Initiation
In this paper, we propose the use of the graphical representation of the functional resonance analysis method, FRAM, in initial requirement modeling, IRM, in agile project initiation. Although more than twenty modeling methods are available in IRM of Disciplined Agile Delivery for instance, we choose scenario analysis and user story mapping to generate initial requirements and release plan in this work. Scenarios in a natural language can be understood and corrected by non-software experts, but they require reading and understanding character information. Scenarios in a graphical representation can be understood and corrected more easily by non-software experts. In addition, we also expect scenarios modeled in a graphical representation can be easily translated to a form of user story mapping, which is useful in considering initial requirements and release plan in agile project initiation. We specifically choose FRAM to describe and analyze scenarios in IRM. FRAM was proposed in a context of safety engineering and resilience engineering and has a graphical model representation useful to devise a mechanism which makes "things go right." In this paper, we introduce our approach and explain a case study of initial requirement modeling for a simple student project of mobile application development. In the case study, we performed short iterations starting from a very initial scenario to a representation of requirements reflecting a release plan. We evaluate our approach by comparing with an approach using the same scenario in a natural language.
A Study on Effective PBL Program Based on Software Process Education
Keiichi Katamine，Masanobu Umeda
Project Based Learning (PBL) is widely implemented in the field of practical educations at universities. Projects of the PBL, however, often used to be just a project or a field to provide experience working in a troublesome team. This is because a point of project management view is often paid little attention to. For instructive PBL, it is important for individual engineers to plan and manage schedule and quality by themselves based on their own process data. Team management based on individual process data is also important on team development.This paper proposes a managed-PBL program that includes educations of knowledge and skills required for software development as a basement. The proposed PBL program utilizes the training courses of Personal Software Process (PSP) and Introductory Team Software Process (TSPi), which are suitable to learn practical engineering knowledge and skills for software development. PSP and TSPi are software process-based methods proposed by Watts S. Humphrey at Software Engineering Institute of Carnegie Mellon University, and the former is a self-improvement process for developing high quality software while the latter is a framework for team building and team management. We have been conducting courses based on the proposed PBL program since 2011 in Graduate School of Kyushu Institute of Technology. For example, a PBL team in 2020 developed a prototype system for congestion monitoring of stores using the AI technology adopting machine learning for COVID-19 prevention and completed the project with successful results. This paper analyzes how individual process data of PSP was applied to planning and progress management and quality management of TSPi, and how TSPi team data was applied to PBL projects. It also discusses about educations of new development styles such as latest development environment and the integration of a real-time object detection subsystem for machine learning.
A Consideration for Improving Online-centered Project Management Accelerated by "under COVID-19"
While many online-centered, full-remote projects have been carried out under COVID-19, there are some reports of successful projects in such a form.In the field of education, there are many treatises that describe the benefits of online lessons, and since they were successful in project management practice, they are even better than face-to-face / collective styles while taking advantage of online. It is at a stage where consideration and verification are needed to make it a good idea.Regarding productivity, the importance of being able to work autonomously is mentioned, and we will mainly consider improving the problem of communication as an element to foster a sense of fellowship as an element to promote and to prevent it from diminishing.In this paper, the author considered through discusses the study group of the Kansai branch of the PM Society (consisting of university officials, corporate PMOs / in-house education officials, and on-site PMs), discussions at affiliated organizations and other academic societies. Other hearings, and the above as an improvement in the project management of online remote work, literature research.Lectures with a lot of prior literature, including statistical analysis, in comparison to education-similarity to exercises (differences in excitement, suggestions from soliloquy and discussions by other teams) rather than those related to testing It is suggested that there are differences in tools, but there are aspects that are more important than that, citing the idea of improving project management by digging deeper here.There are many points that need to be considered about the differences between Japan and overseas countries, and I think this is also a point of view that cannot be overlooked.This research is at the stage of research note, continuous work. I would like to proceed with the goal of research results that can be used for meta-analysis.
Human Resource Management Strategy at IT Service Desk Center
Along with changing the way of thinking about working, Human Resource Management at IT service desk center has been more difficult in past several years. Most of call agents at IT service desk center consist of many FTH (Fixed Time Hire) employees. The turnover rate of FTH employees at IT service desk tends to be higher. In addition, it has become more difficult to hire them by some reasons such as diversification of employee, impression that seems to require somewhat high skills and be stressful. Therefore, we straggled to maintain our important and main human resources. we have to have silver bullet against this obstacle. We tackled it using 4 ways described as follows.
Communication in the Upstream Process
A discrepancy in recognition between the ordering party and the trustee can occur in any process of the project. Since the factors that cause the project to fail are often mixed in the upstream process, it is considered useful for the project to reduce the discrepancy in recognition between the ordering party and the trustee in the upstream process. In this paper, we take a specific project as an example and consider the measures (period of requirement definition process, timing of specification freeze, communication method in remote work environment) implemented in the project. It is best to secure a sufficient requirement definition period, but subsequent processes will be shortened consequently. Therefore, it is necessary to proceed the considerations while sharing the deviation from the baseline planned at the time of proposal, rather than making an effort to some how find out the requirements, which the ordering party recognizes. Regarding the specification freeze point, the merits of the ordering party and the trustee conflict with each other, so it is not possible to unconditionally define whether the schedule is good or bad. However, we think that it is necessary to predict the frequency of change requests, from the characteristics of the ordering party, and secure appropriate resources until the specifications freeze point, so that the schedule will not be delayed due to additional tasks such as impact investigation and estimation. I was able to recognize the importance of communication during the project start-up period. The main purpose was to improve the accuracy of requirement definition, but I believe that it was also very useful for training the project manager.